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The principle of electric heating - the conversion of electrical energy into heat.
The following types of heating devices are most often used:
● convectors, fan heaters;● electric underfloor heating;● infrared heaters (ceramic wall panels, film underfloor heating);
The simplest type of electric heaters - convectors, oil radiators and fans. At high temperatures of the heating elements, the ambient air is heated, which due to convection or air flow from the fan, disperses throughout the room.
Infrared heaters work due to thermal radiation. And objects that are nearby are already heated directly. This type of heating is characterized by low inertia, and, consequently, the room heats up very quickly, but only in the area of infrared rays.
Electric underfloor heating is the most comfortable to use. They are made in the form of a heating cable or film with infrared elements. Installation - either in a concrete screed (heating cable), or directly under the floor (infrared film floors). Very comfortable and durable. Although, as a rule, they should be used only as an additional heat source. Especially if the room is not insulated enough.
Electric heating can be controlled by special thermostats (separate or built into the device). However, the most advanced type of control is with the help of Smart Home controllers. In this case, it is possible to set the desired temperature on the schedule, create various automations, remotely control and monitor the state using a mobile application.
Among the advantages are:
● Low price of equipment in comparison with gas and solid fuel boilers● Quick and easy installation● Easy maintenance● High efficiency● Installation and removal of devices does not require permits● No need for a chimney● Most of the risks inherent in gas heating are absent - the formation of carbon monoxide, gas leaks, increased fire risk● Quiet operation● Long service life● Automation of the heating system and the possibility of flexible control of the system with thermostats
Disadvantages of electric heating:
● Relatively high cost of operation● Higher requirements for cabling● Additional devices must be installed to adjust or prioritize available power● Complete dependence of the heating system on the availability of electricity
It is clear that the issue of comfortable climate in the house must be addressed comprehensively. Not only due to the large number and total capacity of heating devices, but also well-thought-out and designed thermal insulation of premises, the correct mode of operation of ventilation systems.
There are other types of electric heating, but with indirect heat generation - heat pumps and water heating systems using an electric boiler. Separate articles are devoted to such systems.